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Scientific Advertising
by Claude Hopkins

Central Theme: Advertising should be measurable and justify the results it produces.

Show examples of 7 of these concepts used in business.

  1. Advertising, is based on fixed principles and is reasonably exact. It is known what is most effective as the result of basic laws.
  2. Advertising is Salesmanship: The only purpose of advertising is to make sales.
  3. Service: People seek service. Ads are based on service: offering wanted information and siteing advantages to users.
  4. Mail Order Advertising: The severest test of advertising is selling goods by mail. Advertising is profitable or it is not, clearly on the face of returns.
  5. Headlines: The purpose of the headline is to pick out people in a crowd. Address the people you seek and them only.
  6. Psychology: Curiosity is one of the strongest human incentives. Americans want bargains but not cheapness.
  7. Being Specific: The weight of an argument may often be multiplied by making it specific. No generality has any weight whatever. But specific claims when made in print are taken at their value.
  8. Tell Your Full Story: When you once get a person's attention, then is the time to accomplish all ever hope with him. Tell a story resonably completely with ordinary common sense.
  9. Art In Advertising: Use pictures only when they form a better selling argument than the same amount of space set in type. Be normal in everything you do when you are seeking confidence and conviction.
  10. Things To Costly: Every method should be weighed on a known scale of cost and result. Changing people's habits is very expensive. Watch developing trends that creation new desires and at the right time offer to satisfy those desires.
  11. Information: A single ad sometimes requires weeks of work. The ad seems so simple, and must be simple to appeal to simple people. But back of that ad lies reams of data, volumes of information, months of research.
  12. Strategy: Advertising is much like war. We must have skill and knowledge; training and experience; the right equipment; ample proper ammunition; and fair estimation of the opponent. We need intelligence and alliances with dealers. We need strategy of the ablest sort to multiply the value or our forces.
  13. Use Of Samples: The product itself should be its own best salesman. Samples are of prime importance.
  14. Getting Distribution: A venture cannot be profitable if nine in ten of the converts fail to find the goods. Go to men who know by countless experience the best plan to apply to your line.
  15. Test Campaign: Almost any questions can be answered, cheaply, quickly and finally, by a test campaign. Go to the court of last resort. The buyers of your product.
  16. Leaning On Dealers: On most lines, making a sale without making a convert does not count for much. Sales made by conviction-by advertising-are likely to bring permanent customers.
  17. Individuality: A person who desires to make an impression must stand out in some way. Being eccentric, being abnormal is not a distinction to covet. But doing admirable things in a different way gives one a great advantage.
  18. Negative Advertising: To attack a rival is never good advertising.
  19. Letter Writing: Good letters have a headline, which attracts your interest. At a glance they offer something that you want, something you may wish to know.
  20. A Name That Helps: There is great advantage in a name that tells a story. The question of a name is of serious importance in laying the foundations of a new undertaking. Some names have become the chief factors in success.
  21. Good Business: We see countless ads running year after year which we know to be unprofitable. Advertisers will multiply when they see that advertising can be safe and sure. Small expenditures made on a guess will grow to big ones on a certainty.